10 May Or the gold medal in the modern pentathlon?
The custom also imposes an alternation between countries and continents. In black, the host cities for the Summer Games, in red for the winter games Watch map, Europe focuses the majority of host cities, yet the United States is far in the lead with – between winter Games and Games summer- nine host cities, including three selections for Los Angeles. In opening ceremonies and closing of the Olympics, they comprise a number of elements intended to affirm the values ??of Olympism.
Museum of Olympism, Lausanne The opening ceremony The elements are held in a fixed order: – arrival of the officials; – Parade of participants (athletes, but also members of national sports federations, coaches …), each delegation is preceded by its national1 flag; As directed. Greece comes first, then the various delegations in the order of the alphabet of the host country, whose athletes come last. – speech by the head of state of the host city, with the official opening formula; -entrance drapeau2 delivered to the mayor by that of the previous host city; – release of doves and Olympic Anthem (compound for the 1st olympiade executed regularly since 1952) accompanying the rise of the Olympic flag mast; – the last carrier entry and ignition of the flame; – oath of the athletes and judges (OG appeared in 1920).
Athletes’ Oath “In the name of all competitors I promise that we in the Olympic Games as loyal competitors, friendly regulations and willing to participate in the true spirit for the glory and honor of our teams.” Oath of Judges: “On behalf do my homework for free online
of all the judges and officials, I promise that we shall officiate in these Olympic Games with complete impartiality, respecting the regulations and faithful to the principles of true sportsmanship.” The closing ceremony She also a course set by the rules, with a particularly symbolic end: – the Olympic flag is lowered and the flame goes out. – but viewers extend the festival by illuminating the stands. This gesture represents well the history of the modern Games: the party is not over as the new party has already started.
To mark this passage the mayor of the new host city to attend the ceremony and it presents a table at the show which accompanies the official times. STATES AND ATHLETES The Charter makes it clear that this is a competition between athletes and not between countries, with commitment through the NOC (National Olympic Committee). The Olympic Games are competitions between athletes and not between countries.
They bring together the athletes selected by their respective NOCs. NOCs decide upon the entry of athletes …. (proposed by the Federations) …. not only for sports performance of an athlete but also on his ability to serve as a model for young athletes of his country. On the occasion of the Rio Games (2016), the IOC intervened.
But domestic politics remains. In 1968 (Mexico) black athletes show Smith and Carlos, raising their fists during the medal, their stance against racial discrimination in the United States. They will be excluded by the IOC, because the Charter imposes the neutrality of the participants. The rank in the “medal table” involved in the sports policy of the country, as shown by the example of Great Britain.
Similarly debates abound around the management of the preparation of athletes by their state, sometimes from an early age, as the media coverage around medals. The Olympic delegations of all countries are selected, prepared and supervised as elite commando units, monitored as missions of secret agents abroad, paid on state budgets and mobilized for- defend “the national honor, “the” flag colors “and represent the” homeland “against other nations […] the race for medals, honors and titles, is no longer a matter of individuals. but rather a state industry with its five-year plans […) What Review Body Special Issue September 1988 A Brush Ras-le-Seoul!
Seoul, ras-le-bol! No, that’s right, me, every time I open my transistor, on balance defeat me in the mouth, a very French hopes crashing, which shatters skiff, bike or foil. In the media, I am not talking about specials, the medals are traffic or not. You can tell me, you who is who won the silver medal in the 200m freestyle ladies?
Or the gold medal in the modern pentathlon? Not necessarily: it is one, since it is not us. (…) Claude Sarraute3 The media abound amplify this comparison between the number of medals and the aura of a country by publishing and commenting rankings by number of medals obtained. Particularly television , with its global audience, serves as a sounding board for foreign policy facts.
The Games will therefore serve to medium groups or states: • recognition, • exclusion or punishment, • pressure through terrorist operations as in Munich (1972), boycotts (several western countries did not participate in 1980 the Olympic Games in Moscow, the Soviet Union from invading Afghanistan). The relationship between international and Olympic policy can, despite the clear injunctions of the Olympic Charter, give rise to debates far removed sporty performance and the “international peace”.
The case of Germany The German participation in the Olympics is directly linked to its political history. 1920 Germany is excluded from the Games with the other defeated nations. She returned in 1928 in Amsterdam, 1936, the Nazi power quickly realized he could get a situation prepared before taking office (the IOC elects the city of Berlin at the Barcelona conference in 1931). The sport was in Berlin from 2 to 15 August, reasons of state, and the only other drop everything.
The sport has been put at the service of the race, no one questions that. Using an athletic expression of interest and global participation, the Fuhrer and his collaborators gave the people the spectacle of a regenerated Germany physically and morally sure of herself, organizing to perfection, giving the impression of a perfectly balanced race and thriving. (..] Visitors from abroad had the impression of watching a gigantic theatrical representation in which they were as actors or extras.
L’Illustration, 1936. “Heritage” of the Second World War, the partition Germany is required only very slowly to the Olympic authorities. the IOC does not recognize, in 1951, only one Olympic Committee to let the Germans care to hear them. Until 1966, the Germans compete under one color in common with delegations. the IOC recognizes (before the government) National Olympic Committee of the GDR whose official entry takes place at the European Championships in 1966.
Mexico, in 1968, also marks the first Games where both Germany Unveil separees.4 Debates around the Beijing Games in 2008, a few months before the opening of the Beijing Games, a controversy accompanied the global route of the Olympic flame. Many nations accuse China sprains human rights: imprisonment of opponents and especially repression against the revolt of the Tibetans. “The repression is getting worse as we enter the crucial phase of the Games.
What matters to them is to silence the small oppressed people of China. Thousands of people are already in prison, in psychiatric hospitals or labor camps. This has a direct link with the Olympics. “Hu Jia (sentenced to 3 ? years in prison) Cited by Ouest-France, 04/06/08 Thus notes around the flame circuit in several cities of the world: * a large police presence, * many incidents, * a large operation by the international media.
The police presence was already at the torch relay in Paris in 2004 Titles: A flame for Human Rights Olympic Torch arrives in Paris tomorrow.